Define the terms “spasm, interexaminar and intraexaminer reliability, global myoelectric activity and muscle fatigue”. • Identify the various components of the modern paraspinal electrode EMG machine. recording. • Compare and contrast the use of surface electrodes in the traditional electromyographic examination versus the paraspinal surface electrode electromyographic examination. • Recite several scientific studies regarding paraspinal surface electrode electromyographic, and strenghs and weaknesses of each study. • Describe tissue filtering, best ways to overcome it, and explain its significance in obtaining useful data. • Recite the names of the paraspinal musculature organized by their depth, action and activation response. • Discuss performance and utility of the test for the “flexion relaxation” phenomenon.